Three-Layered Psychological Analysis of an Epidemic: Impact and Legacy of Covid-19

Francesca Granier, Federica Pantaleo, Lorenzo Ielapi, Giorgio Soverchia

Abstract


The global emergency caused by the spread of virus known as “Covid-19” caught many people by surprise, revealing the precariousness not only of health, but also of many other areas of our life, such as relationships, the economy, politics or the environment. The purpose of this article is to explore broadly how quarantine and the perception of the virus influenced, in an interconnected way, the emotions and behaviors of individuals, society and the human species. From a symbolic and psychodynamic point of view, the COVID-19 can be considered as an unknown, unpredictable and invisible enemy. Due to its indefinite nature, individuals and societies have put in place special defense mechanisms to defend themselves from an intolerable state of uncertainty and anguish. From a broader point of view, the arrival of Covid-19 consists in a breach in the human illusion of omnipotence. It has put humanity in front of its limit and weakness. This unpleasant contact opens the way to an uncertain future. Change seems inevitable, but the nature of it is still unknown. Whether it will be a regressive or evolutionary transformation will depend only on us, as individuals, societies and species.


Keyword


Covid-19; defense mechanisms; complexity theory; eco-psycho-dynamics

Full Text

PDF (English)

Riferimenti bibliografici


Bateson G. (1972), Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology, University of Chicago Press.

Bion, W. R. (1967). Second thoughts: Selected papers on psychoanalysis. Butterworth-Heinemann (trad. it. Riflettendoci meglio, Astrolabio, 2016).

Bion, W. R. (1970) Attention and Interpretation: A Scientific Approach to Insight in Psycho-Analysis and Groups. London: Tavistock.

Blum, H. P. (2003). Psychic trauma and traumatic object loss. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51(2), 415-432

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet.

Cava, M. A., Fay, K. E., Beanlands, H. J., McCay, E. A., & Wignall, R. (2005). The experience of quarantine for individuals affected by SARS in Toronto. Public Health Nursing, 22(5), 398-406.

Chasseguet-Smirgel, J. (1985). Creativity and perversion. Free Association Books. (trad. it. Creatività e Perversione, Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano, 1987)

Desclaux, A., Badji, D., Ndione, A. G., & Sow, K. (2017). Accepted monitoring or endured quarantine? Ebola contacts' perceptions in Senegal. Social Science & Medicine, 178, 38-45.

Di Cesare D., Bonazzi M. & Remuzzi G. (2020). Il pensiero dell’immunità opposto a quello della comunità. Corriere della Sera, 16 febbraio.

Di Giovanni, C., Conley, J., Chiu, D., & Zaborski, J. (2004). Factors influencing compliance with quarantine in Toronto during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Biosecurity and bioterrorism: biodefense strategy, practice, and science, 2(4), 265-272.

Dodds J. (2012), Psychoanalysis and ecology at the edge of chaos, Routledge, London.

Finzi, S. V. (1986). Storia della psicoanalisi. Edizioni Mondadori.

Freud, S. (1896). L’ereditarietà e l’etiologia delle nevrosi. Tr. It. In Opere vol. 2, (1968). Torino, Boringhieri

Gilman, S. L. (2010). Moral panic and pandemics. The Lancet, 375(9729), 1866-1867.

Gosling, J. (2008). HIV/Aids: an encounter with death or a journey into life?. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 53(2), 261-269.

Grinberg, L., Sor, D., & de Bianchedi, E. T. (1977). Introduction to the work of Bion: groups, knowledge, psychosis, thought, transformations, psychoanalytic practice. Jason Aronson. (trad. it. Introduzione al pensiero di Bion, Raffaello Cortina Editore, 1993)

Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. (2004). SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(7), 1206.

Notes on some schizoid mechanisms. (trad. it. Note su alcuni meccanismi schizoidi. In Scritti 1921-1958, pp. 409-434. Bollati Boringhieri, 2006)

Klein, M. (1957). Envy & gratitude. Psyche, 11(5), 241-255. (trad. it. Invidia e gratitudine, Martinelli Editore, Firenze, 1969)

Lee, S., Chan, L. Y., Chau, A. M., Kwok, K. P., & Kleinman, A. (2005). The experience of SARS-related stigma at Amoy Gardens. Social science & medicine, 61(9), 2038-2046.

Lingiardi, V. (2018). Diagnosi e destino. Torino: Einaudi Editore.

Lingiardi, V., & Gazzillo, F. (Eds). (2014). La personalità e i suoi disturbi: Valutazione clinica e diagnosi al servizio del trattamento. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.

Maggiori, L. (2020). Coronavirus e inquinamento, è brutto dire ‘noi l’avevamo detto’. Eppure è così. Il Fatto Quotidiano.

Marigold D. C., McGregor I., Zanna M P. (2010). Defensive Conviction as Emotion Regulation: Goal Mechanisms and Interpersonal Implications. In Arkin R. M., Mineka, S., & Kelly, K. A. 1989

Mazzoni G. (2015). I destini generali. Bari: Laterza Editore.

Moreno Di Marco, Michelle L. Baker, Peter Daszak (2020) Opinion: Sustainable development must account for pandemic risk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2020, 117 (8) 3888-3892; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001655117

Morin E. (1977) Il metodo, ordine, disordine, organizzazione trad. it., Feltrinelli, Milano, 1988.

Nicomedes, C. J., & Avila, R. M. (2020). An Analysis on the Panic of Filipinos During COVID-19 Pandemic in the Philippines. Psychology today.

Pergola, F. (2019). PolisAnalisi. Una clinica del sociale. Franco Angeli: Milano.

Proulx, T., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). The five “A” s of meaning maintenance: Finding meaning in the theories of sense-making. Psychological Inquiry, 23(4), 317-335.

Reynolds, D. L., Garay, J. R., Deamond, S. L., Moran, M. K., Gold, W., & Styra, R. (2008). Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiology & Infection, 136(7), 997-1007.

Risé, C. (2020). Il Covid-19 non ci è arrivato addosso. Ce lo siamo andati a prendere noi. Arianna Editrice.

Ronchi, R. (2020). Le virtù del virus. Doppiozero, 8 Marzo.

Salvatore, S., Palmieri, A., Pergola, F., & Ruggieri, R. A. (2019). Trasformazioni sociali, affettivizzazione della sfera pubblica e ricerca di senso. Education Sciences & Society-Open Access Journal, 10(2).

Sontag, S. (1977). Illness as metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors. Macmillan. (trad. it. Malattia come metafora. Aids e cancro. Torino, Einaudi,1978).

Tagliagambe, F. (2020). Coronavirus. Come liberare la mente dal pifferaio che ci tiene prigionieri?. Ilsussidiario.net, Il quotidiano approfondito, 4 Aprile.

Weary, G., Tobin, S. J., & Edwards, J. A. (2010). The causal uncertainty model revisited. na.

Weber, C. (2020). Fare i conti con un trauma sconosciuto. Associazione di studi psicoanalitici.

Yoon, M. K., Kim, S. Y., Ko, H. S., & Lee, M. S. (2016). System effectiveness of detection, brief intervention and refer to treatment for the people with post-traumatic emotional distress by MERS: a case report of community-based proactive intervention in South Korea. International journal of mental health systems, 10(1), 51.

Zeller, M. (1990). Sickness, suffering and redemption. In The Dream: The Vision of the Night. Boston: Sigo Press.


Refback

  • Non ci sono refbacks, per ora.




ISSN: 2035-4630, Open-acess, peer-reviewed Journal, Tribunale di Roma 142/09, 04/05/09 - dir. responsabile: G. Colajacomo

   Creative Commons - BY-NC-SA 4.0